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March 2017
Dietetics
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VITAMINS

   VITAMINS

These are organic substances that are necessary, even if just in small quantities, for general metabolic reactions, for growth and for normal bodily functions.
Vitamins can be liposoluble (soluble in fatty substances and solvents) and hydrosoluble (soluble in water).  

Liposoluble vitamins
These are absorbed together with fats. Since, diversely from hydrosoluble vitamins, they cannot be removed through the urine and instead remained stored in the body for long periods of time, consuming them excessively can cause serious intoxication. 
Vitamin A
Vitamin A carries out a protective action on mucous membranes and epithelia, helping to enhance their barriers against infections. Vitamin A also promotes growth by encouraging skeletal development.
Vitamin D
Vitamin D regulates the concentration of calcium in the body, increasing the level in the blood by increasing absorption in the intestine. The majority of available calcium is stored in bone tissue.
Vitamin E
It influences the stabilisation of cell membranes and fat deposits as well as playing an important role in the biogenesis of some intracellular organelles.
Vitamin K
Vitamin K has anti-haemorrhage capabilities, encouraging the production of clotting factors by the liver.

Hydrosoluble vitamins
These are particularly important as coenzyme factors for many systems that are essential for the functioning of the body. Being hydrosoluble, they are easily absorbed by the intestine and are, at least in part, synthesised by intestinal bacterial flora. When these vitamins are consumed in excess, they are normally removed through the urine. Unlike the liposoluble vitamins, most of these cannot be stored in the bodily organs and tissues.
Vitamin B1
Vitamin B1 has an essential role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, acting in dozens of chain reactions.
Vitamin B2
This is absorbed in the small intestine and transported to the liver and other tissues, where it transform into Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), participating in important oxidation-reduction reactions in energy-yielding metabolic pathways.
Vitamin B6
Vitamin B6 participates in the metabolism of carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, amino acids and nitrogenous substances.
Vitamin B12
Vitamin B12 is necessary, above all, for the production of red blood cells and thus, the most obvious sign of deficiency is a form of anaemia.
Pantothenic acid
Pantothenic acid is a precursor of coenzyme A and it is essential for the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids and fatty acids.
Folic acid
Folic acid plays a part in the metabolism of almost all the reactions in which a single carbon atom has to pass from one molecule to another, for example, it is involved in the synthesis of DNA, in the metabolism of amino acids and the repair of chromosomes.
Biotin
Biotin is a hydrosoluble B vitamin that contains sulphur. It carries out a fundamental role in the metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates and protein and it is a coenzyme in various carboxylases.
Vitamin PP
Vitamin PP participates as a coenzyme in the respiratory chain and also acts as a cofactor in the oxidation of fatty acids and in a large number of redox reactions, with the function to yield or acquire hydrogen ions.
Vitamin C
This vitamin inhibits the oxidisation of bodily tissues, blocking oxygen free radicals. It is also fundamental in the formation of connective tissues (collagen).

VITAMINS

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